The small mathematics of the universe“ part 4

Wolfgang Korsus Dipl.-Ing.NT, Astrophysiker
Klingenberg 40
D-25451 Quickborn
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For example to such particles as the electron. Here, only a few Higgs particles are bound. From this we can conclude that the electron is light. But elementary particles like quarks bind many more Higgs particles. So they are heavier. Pure theory will remain for an extremely long time, around 50 years – but then, to the enormous surprise of science, it was announced at the CERN particle accelerator in Geneva in 2012 that the Higgs boson that had been sought for decades had most probably been found.

However again question comes up: will this be last explanation of gravity?

And another question: What are black holes?

A force that we feel in everyday life at all times is gravity. It is the weakest of all physical forces. It can be seen when you make a comparison. gravity with the electromagnetic force. The following experiment : An iron ball is pulled down by gravity but even a very small magnet counteracts the force of gravity and holds the ball back. If we look at large masses, we see the power of gravity.

Do we continue with the power of gravity and how? ……Very simple theoretically but scientifically answered !

We will turn away from our solar system while travelling. Out into space. Here the power of gravity is shown to us more strongly. We discover stars which are much bigger ( heavier ) than our sun. They are more than 20 times as heavy. But what happens when such a giant has used up its „fuel“ ?

It happens the following, the star just described inflates to a „red giant“ after the final fuel consumption.

This means that in its inner body the atoms merge to heavier and heavier elements. The end is with the iron element itself. And suddenly the nuclear fusion stops, because it is known that the fusion chain stops, because for example no more energy is gained from the fusion of two iron nuclei. Now this iron core, the quasi remaining star, is so heavy that it collapses under its own weight.

As a result, the entire gas envelope of the bloated star collapses towards the iron core that has just collapsed. There the gases bounce off, of course, and this is important for the star: it is torn apart. This happens with a murderous detonation. Then everything of its matter is hurled into space……….Astronomers call this event a supernova explosion.

Leaving an extremely compact residue. One knows if this star was heavy enough, then this remainder (thus the mass of the remainder) is pressed by the force of gravity so strongly that it is called a celestial body (black hole).

The density of such a black hole can be explained as infinitely high. Further, the force of attraction – the curvature of space-time – is so strong that even light cannot escape, and quite incidentally, matter and light in the immediate vicinity is sucked into the „black hole“, or better still, torn.

In some scientific circles, black holes are considered spectacular and sensational. From a purely physical point of view, nothing more than the death of a sun when it collapses into a black hole. But not every sun will end up like that, because for it to happen, the star must be at least three times as heavy as our sun. So after a supernova explosion, the stellar core that remains must still be at least 2.5 times as heavy as the Sun. Otherwise, no black hole is formed. This formation is very promising for stars with an initial mass of no less than 20 to 40 solar masses. There are enough of these !

In other words :

A black hole is after all an object or a „dead sun“ whose entire mass shrinks to a very small volume. Thus it is a so-called singularity, i.e. concentrated on it. It produces such a strong gravitation in its immediate surroundings that not even light can escape from it.

Further to a, „in the present time“, suddenly highly interesting topic : Exoplanets

After astrophysics and astronomy had discovered the first numerous exoplanets quasi far outside of our solar system, the search for extraterrestrial life began……..and until today one discovered numerous exoplanets ……….but none of them had recognizable extraterrestrial life !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

One thing is certain until today, we know very well about the size of the universe we know. Now certain people (those with a good measure of intellect) are asking themselves, is there one or more intelligent living beings somewhere? Good question – that is absolutely certain ! So very specifically said „intelligent life“ ! ………in space ?????????????????????

It is known to us researchers, I hope: we have not received any signal from extraterrestrials until today. Therefore, some astrophysicists are taking a new approach: they are looking for planets outside our solar system on which life could theoretically exist. Personally, I have to say that some of my colleagues in the field are either running out of time or their patience is at an end. With the magnitudes of our cosmos we will be allowed to search for an eternity and besides, of intelligent life I can imagine that it exhausts every possibility to report itself already !!!!!!!!!!!

Let’s wait and see, or let’s keep trying ourselves. I wouldn’t send anybody there, because when he comes back no one is alive anymore !!!!……or he himself is not alive anymore !

The generations to come have time, so search diligently for a second earth !???????????

The question about „extraterrestrial life“ is always fascinating for us humans. Even if the universe itself is fascinating.


There will always be people who pursue this difficult task, namely to search for human life in space.

It is, and this must be stressed, a woman who wants to answer this question. Her name is Lisa Kaltenegger (* 4 March 1977 in Kuchl near Salzburg) and she is an Austrian astronomer and astrophysicist who is engaged in the discovery and exploration of exoplanets, exomondens and super earths.

It is worth mentioning that she started her studies in 1995, coincidentally in the year when the first planet outside our solar system was discovered. It was the planet 51 Pegasi b and is 40 light years away from Earth, a so-called exoplanet. Additionally mentioned, it takes about four days to orbit its star.

Kaltenegger now works at the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy in Heidelberg and This woman is one of the international experts who search for exoplanets in space and want to find out if there is life on them. But before we get a tired yes, yes, yes……..from some readers, it should be clearly pointed out that this search is damn difficult and extremely exhausting. When you look at the sky you see billions of stars and you can see them clearly. Only one planet by itself does not shine. It is, as we can all imagine, much smaller than a sun. In addition, it is to be noted, he reflects only the light from the star, he does not radiate himself!!!!!

The abstract comparison is : candle with 10.000 watt emitter !

In the meantime a large number of actual finds has been made in the field of „planet search“.

How do the results of the „exoplanetary search“ look like so far ?

Astronomers have already discovered hundreds of exoplanets, alone in the constellation „Swan“, but several thousand have been discovered altogether. One must only confirm many of them. But one thing may be mentioned, the biggest part of our night sky has not yet been searched.

Planets are betrayed by the starlight !

So when astronomers start to search for exoplanets, there are mainly two methods. The method1 is the „sweep method“. Sounds a bit strange for you readers, but there is nothing totally weird behind it. When observing a star you only try to find out if a star is moving, more simply expressed, if it is wobbling, so to speak. This quite cheerful sounding „wobbling“ is present and to determine if one or more objects, in this case planets orbit around a star. Because, as you probably already know, masses always exert a mutually acting force on each other. Even a very tiny planet causes a star, or the observed star, to move by orbiting it.

Now such a movement of a star must of course be measurable, with the used instrument alone it is not possible. So astronomers use the so-called Doppler effect. It is the physical property that applies to all electromagnetic waves and says the following: If a star moves towards the observer, the wavelength of its light is shorter than if the star moves away from the observer.

With this method it is therefore possible for astronomers to measure:

  1. whether a star is orbiting a planet
  2. how far it is from the star and ……..
  3. which mass it has.

Only now we come across another problem of the „sweep method“ !

Because the mass alone does not say anything about the orbiting object. Is it where possible a boulder or a gas planet like a small „Uranus“ or a small „Neptune“.

That says : the observing scientist needs an instrument or better a method to get more information about the moving planet. It is the so-called „transit method“. Where one speaks of transit when a planet passes in front of a star. Because then the light of the star changes, so it becomes darker. These fluctuations in light can help astronomers to determine the size of the exoplanet.

For some time now (2009) NASA has been snooping around in „strange worlds“ with a space telescope called „Kepler“. The constellation „Swan“ is mentioned. Here, for example, over 150,000 stars are observed. From these observations in particular it is clear that a planet orbits around at least every second star.

It follows part 5

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