“ The small mathematics of the universe“ part 3

Wolfgang Korsus Dipl.-Ing.NT, Astrophysiker
Klingenberg 40
D-25451 Quickborn
Mobil 01625680456 FNetz 0410669295
Website : wolfgang.korsus.net

It is certain and that is why I say it, physicists often make scientifically founded predictions of a future development or future states, of the probable course of masses and frequencies of these particles, because they fit damn well with the astronomical data recognized so far. However, neither cosmologists nor particle physicists have succeeded in observing and proving these WIMPs at any time or place.

Let me try to show you which experiments are running around the planet. One tries desperately and most emphatically to prove the existence of dark matter.

The starting point for a prediction is the statement: „the WIMPs are sensitive to the so-called weak nuclear force in addition to gravity.

So one tries to measure a special collision of the particles of Dark Matter and to prove it, because hundreds of thousands of these particles flow second by second through every square centimeter of the earth. Now statistics come into play once again. According to them, at least once a year one of them should get stuck to an atomic nucleus by means of the weak nuclear force.

Let us now come to the experiments:

The three most important experiments were carried out in the USA, the Gran Sasso Massif (Italian Abruzzo) and on the international space station ISS.

More disturbing cosmic radiation was avoided. The results for collisions of WIMP’S with atomic nuclei, did not lead to a suitable result. So further results are needed to prove that it is WIMP’s that make up Dark Matter. Or the revered astronomers are still searching for another explanation for the missing mass in the universe.

From Dark Matter to Dark Energy?

A short physical prologue ! The nature of Dark Matter is still unclear:

A few figures to help us understand it further. Astrophysicists assume that visible matter is about 4.65 percent. ( better, they calculated it )

Dark matter is stated to be approximately 24 percent. There is a clear question: Dark Matter yes, and how does Dark Energy relate to it ? It then makes up the largest part of our universe, about 70 percent.

Now comes the somewhat sad remark: However, up to now we have little idea what it consists of. It is only known: Dark energy is responsible for the fact that the universe, better space, is expanding faster and faster.

And the universe has done this continuously since its creation, i.e. expanded. It is simply the result of astrophysical observations and measurements.

But beware, it is space itself that is expanding, not the stars. They just keep drifting apart. The traditional example must be used again to explain this expansion of space. Let’s make a yeast dough. There are plenty of raisins in it. The raisins should represent the galaxies.

Now we cover the pond warm and slowly it opens. This represents the expansion of space. Now all galaxies ( raisins ) move away from each other because the dough expands between them.

So finally, this example shows that the further two galaxies ( raisins ) are away from each other, the more dough is between them, the faster they move away from each other.

Of course this effect can be observed directly at the light of the galaxies in the universe.

Due to the expansion of space, the wavelength of light on its journey to us is also stretched, it becomes redder. This is called the redshift. The further away a galaxy is from us, the more expanding space in between, the redder the light becomes.

Now there is an important question. First, the dough, it does, but how fast is the universe expanding? One thing is certain, physicists have measured it and they have made a highly interesting discovery! The expansion of the universe is accelerating. Why is this happening?

There must be a force that is responsible for this, because it is driving the galaxies and their „appendages“ apart ever faster. It is the Dark Energy, about which we know even less than about Dark Matter !

Nevertheless, there are only suppositions. Anything, let’s say mysterious building blocks. But you need the mysterious building blocks to explain how the universe became the way we see it today.

How it can be said

There are about 100 billion galaxies in the universe and believe it or not, each of them has about 100 billion stars, asteroids and planets. And between the galaxies there are staggering amounts of free gas nebulae. But that is only a fraction of the matter in the cosmos. However, for the universe to function as we know it, there must or should be much larger amounts of dark matter and dark energy. This fact is up to now for us scientists hardly to understand……………!

The next question follows –

Yes, what connects or better holds the universe together as a whole?

Of course, it is once again gravity. It is quasi a basic force of physics, …….and without this force, nothing, nothing works in the cosmos. Without this force, I repeat myself, the formation of stars and planets would not have been possible. Nor, of course, would life. So gravity is fundamentally important. But to this day we do not know exactly how it works.

What is gravity?

Again the question. What holds the sun and planets together, what holds the universe together?

Let’s start with Johannes Kepler. He studied the planets during a visit to Prague. He worked there at the imperial court and studied the movement of the planets around the sun, more precisely than ever before. After this work he was sure that it all had to do with a certain force. In his opinion this force had to come from the sun. Because the sun made the planets orbit around the sun. He also found a name for it: Anima motrix – soul of the mover.

A man and researcher in England could not rest, after all he taught

in 1666 at Trinity College, Cambridge, England. Isaac Newton taught there, he was the youngest physics professor in England – only 23 years old. And now follows, as almost everyone knows, the story of the apple that falls on his head.

It fell vertically on his head – on the ground, of course.

Why must an apple always fall vertically to the ground? Why not to the side or perpendicular to it?

Newton supposedly deduced from this little event that bodies attract each other. Here the attraction is inversely proportional to the square of the distance. By the way : The moon indeed won?t fall down and will stay in its earth orbit, and why ?……. because centrifugal force is in balance with mass attraction (gravity). It falls quasi permanently around the earth.

Newton’s work on gravity was not questioned for about 200 years. But then a physicist came into the picture. The year 1915 was written in Berlin. Here, Albert Einstein was working on a whole new explanation:

A. Einstein thought quite differently at that moment. For him it was clear that the space in which the sun and the planets moved is not changeable and absolute.

He established the theory of relativity and postulated space and time as relative.

For him it follows from this that time does not pass everywhere at the same speed, but is constantly dependent on the speed at which you move and finally where you are.

This has been, and I insist on it, truly a revolution in physics. Other physicists had previously said that space and time are fixed quantities that cannot be influenced.

Einstein saw it completely differently, for him space and time was the „space-time“ he postulated. And further his statement is: Mass simply bends space-time. Another idea followed. Namely, space and time is like a surface, very simple (a stretched cloth)

…..So if there is no mass, space-time is flat – the cloth would be taut. But a good example of a mass that is there is the sun, it curves space-time through its mass, just as if a heavy ball were placed on the taut cloth: it follows, the cloth curves downwards. That means again. The cloth, that is, space-time is no longer flat, but curved. Another example: If you now let a small ball (earth) roll over the cloth, it will move through the curvature on a circular path around the large ball – just like the earth around the „sun. Now the gravitation can be described very exactly. So it is the curvature of space-time due to masses and this then provides the orbits of the planets around the sun.

Now comes the moment for Einstein, where he wants to prove his theory. And he does, a few years later. This included a very interesting consideration: Mass curves space-time. Then it will eventually also deflect (bend) light. He makes a calculation, ingenious and certainly simple for him.

He calculates how the mass of the sun deflects light from stars behind it. So a so-called solar eclipse. And lo and behold, the following observations show that the sun actually bends space and thus changes the course of the light rays of the star.

But the following question remains unanswered: Why do bodies actually have a mass. After all it bends space ? At first, this question mark remains. Then in 1964 it is Peter Higgs, a newly appointed physics professor (King’s College in London) goes public with a bold thesis.

He makes his way to the elementary oaks. By then we know there are twelve and he says something very important, he comes up with a thirteenth. It is the Higgs particle. Definitely, these particles fill the whole of space. He sees them as a kind of cosmic glue, which attaches itself to matter.


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