First the Horizonts………then until the Last veil Part 11


Wolfgang Korsus Dipl.-Ing. NT,  Astrophysiker

25451 Quickborn,  Klingenberg 40

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Inflation……says clearly better

„Cosmic inflation“.

About thirty years ago the American cosmologist Alan Guth proposed an excellent model.

I try to explain it, because I have followed this model myself theoretically and intellectually more and more often and I am convinced that this model is not only a hypothesis ( statement whose validity one considers possible, but which is not proved or verified ), but …… it has actually been. Because the living being man did not exist yet therefore it can never be proved.

If you decide to measure anything, you should think and ask yourself : what is my reference point ? It is a zero !…….denn the height of mountains is measured „above sea level“, the depth of oceans „below sea level“. Accordingly, Mount Everest is 8900 meters high and the highest mountain on earth. But the volcano Mauna Kea on Hawaii rises 10.000 meters above the „sea bottom“ – actually it is the biggest mountain on earth. …….Denkste !!!

Another example :

Imagine a dammed river: Upstream the water level is much higher than downstream. Here I say : This difference in height results in a corresponding difference in potential energy and this can be used to operate a power plant which generates electricity by the falling water.

That says, if the transition from one energy level to another takes place very suddenly, energy is released. With the cosmic inflation already mentioned by me one can imagine well that the whole universe of today originally consisted of a small bubble of extremely hot matter, causally it was coherent and in the thermal equilibrium. Only the ground state, thus the reference point, was far below our today’s at that time. This primeval bubble expanded, cooled down gradually and was brought thereby to a critical point.

But it must be said in addition with the mentioned process the space expanded extremely in very short time, because that says the term „inflation“. I had mentioned that the matter before the expansion was in the thermal equilibrium, so it remained in the corresponding state also after the breakup into causally „incoherent“ areas. The inflation theory explains itself as already mentioned to the fact that one measures the same background temperature in all areas of the sky today.

To the inflation there are also simple explanations and I try it times on this way. It starts : before the inflation all participants were in the same „bucket“,…

that means for the information, they tuned. So they remained in the subsequent transition. So it was an information transition from higher to lower level.

And this released a lot of energy; this „dark energy“ permeates the (our) whole universe. This energy was up to now and remains further the engine for the expansion. Even the „cosmic“ inflation explains at best how in the calculated extremely short time a hot, expanding universe could develop.

However, I must not forget to point out …. the origin of the conditions necessary for this process remains furthermore in the dark.

So it will remain eternally because the real beginning of everything remains further beyond the science and with it eternally in the dark.

The, I call it „postinflationary“ development, depends then, as I already mentioned, on the interaction of gravity and dark energy. It is also to be mentioned, however it may go on, today still in any case everything expands increasingly.

Only always remember, this expansion is not an „explosion“ which e.g. hurls debris into an empty space. The space originated only in the big bang, and it is the space itself which is hurled out. I find certainly a better comparison how one can represent the universe of today, namely in such a way as it has been described already often. Now follows the perhaps already known example with the cake ……..

…..our universe today can be imagined like raisins in a cake pond. This has already been some time in the oven and the cake „rises“.

Everyone knows what happens when a cake rises, ….then all the raisins notice something very specific, namely the neighboring raisins move further and further away from each other. The dough between the raisins is equal to the space and for the idea of expansion it doesn’t matter how much dough there is and whether it stops somewhere.

So, back to cosmology, because very similarly, the primordial matter of the early universe was not concentrated at one point in space. We see only the part of the universe whose light reached us in 14 billion years, and this part was indeed spatially localized. What there was and still is outside of this area, we simply cannot say, at least not today. We ask ourselves, however, wouldn’t have to arrive the light from these at present still unreachable regions with us if we only wait long enough?

As we know today, this is not the case. We can use Hubble’s law to calculate how far away from us a star must be in order for it to disappear from our view at more than the speed of light. As we will see in a moment, this does not mean that this star itself is traveling somewhere at faster than light speed, which would contradict relativity. Rather, it means that the part of space in which it is located is moving away from ours so rapidly due to the expansion of the universe. After all, Hubble’s law states how fast distant regions of space are disappearing; with the given value of the Hubble constant, this expansion reaches the speed of light at a distance of 14 light-years. A star, which is today so far away from us, disappears, together with its environment, with more than light speed, and no signal from it will ever reach us. There is an absolute cosmic horizon :

„The absolute beyond“

Yes I think it, will also say it and lean directly on my last sentence of the last chapter.

That was: „There is an absolute cosmic horizon“……….on the opposite, other side !!!!!!!!!

The mankind which still exists and likewise still will exist, must simply assume : The universe distant by more than 14 billion light-years is not attainable forever. Simply said and also proved, we can send „the there if existing beings“ no signals and also receive „none“ from there, ….basta !
Imagine we are just on a „Hubble sphere“, that is limited to the 14 billion light years radius or better still, mentally completely immobile. Another low blow….that is to be made valid only for us, especially here on our fly shit big planet. A correspondingly distant star has of course his, I say calmly times own „Hubble sphere“. Their „Hu-Ku“ covers perhaps for us a strange part of the universe, which can have common areas with ours, but must not necessarily have.
Understood… ???

In the universe are certainly more „Hubble spheres“, only sure we know, we have an absolute „speed of light limit“ ! …. and our ability to communicate just comes up against this absolute limit. I call it therefore also with pleasure our “

“ communication ability limit“.

Also a return to an objection can be interesting, it is called :

– nothing can move away with more than light speed -.

And this is truly correct. Because have you dear readers ever heard that one can run away from a light beam approximately? But an additional aspect comes into play now, it is the expansion of space !

An example in short: a far away star emits a light signal, and this starts in our direction and this with universal light speed. While it „flies along“, however, the space expands, and should this expansion take place fast enough, the light signal will never reach us.

If we look at this from the point of view of other stars, again Hubble’s law comes into play, because it does not say that a distant star simply runs away from us. From the view of other stars in its environment it is absolutely stationary.

Because wherever a light signal flits by, better comes, observers there measure the speed of light. I like to compare the light signal a little bit with an older slow worm it crawls through a rising cake dough from one raisin to the next. Any observer of such a scenario will see the creep crawling at standard speed, but to remember, the cake is rising in the meantime, and if that happens fast enough, the poor creep will never reach the next raisin. I note now, after safely reading the little sneak story : in cosmic inflation, it was space that expanded so suddenly – in sufficiently restricted local areas, nothing moved faster than light.

I now ask, „Is the Hubble constant really constant“ , then „our Hubble sphere“ is indeed the boundary of our universe. All areas of the universe, which were outside of our Hubble sphere shortly after the big bang, are unreachable for us afterwards and will always remain so. These areas moved away from us already at that time with „more than light speed“ and were accelerated since then even still.

Let’s look now at a star which has originated shortly after the big bang just still within our Hubble sphere? How is the situation in this case ?

In its direct environment the expansion velocity lies from our view, below the light velocity. But it is to be noticed that its expansion rate increased further and it exceeded the speed of light short time later. What happened, the star left the light, from our view the star went out in the moment halt, he disappeared even with it from our world.

The light, however, which it had emitted shortly before, continues to cross the space, and when it finally reaches us, the star, from which it comes, is already far, far and still further outside of our world.


<< That is for us the absolute, yes, absolute „beyond“. >>

We make a very small scientific journey to this question:

How far away is the star if shortly after the „big bang“ a signal was sent out from the earth ? ???? was sent out? ( of course it only makes sense if it already existed )

……how far has it (signal) come then until today? Simple calculation: For a static universe that would be the speed of light multiplied by the age of the universe, thus about 14 billion light years.

But the expansion described by me makes the distance significantly larger, so also the sneak noticed it during its journey through the cake dough. If therefore the acceleration of the expansion remains constant, this leads to 42 billion light-years, the triple of the static distance (I still take position in the note B4)

Thus I say out, the most distant stars which can be observed by the science are extremely farther away than speed of light multiplied by the universe age.

According to my evaluation, the distance has been less, namely still within our Hubble sphere, when they have emitted the light received by us today. They were still much closer to us, closer to us. It has been simply said a light journey special kind, because at the same time the universe expanded. One could call today’s distance also a combination of light travel time and space expansion. The most distant star we see today is now already 42 billion light years away from us. Under the condition that it, the star still exists – but we will never know that.

I am inclined now to get rid of a sentence which lies so many a philosopher on the tongue. But I say it nevertheless:

In contrast to them we astros only know that there was a beginning and that the area accessible to our research ends somewhere.

What is behind it? In today’s cosmology, the limit exists only in the eye of the beholder. There is nothing special about this imaginary sphere, 14 billion light years away, no discontinuity, no great wall; there is no reason to suppose that the world beyond it changes. We just can’t look; the boundary exists only for us. Other observers on other stars have their own accessible (and inaccessible) areas !!!!

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