Dipl.Ing. NT , Astrophysicist
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Website : wolfgang.korsus.net
Now, after a short journey, we have actually landed somewhere in an unfinished cosmos. On this rather short scientific journey through universes, or just one of them, I lie down on my soft parts for the first time. That’s nothing other than ……bin stumbled over, but over what?
…..es are the first particles!
When I talk about particles, the subject of „matter“ is not far away. But I’ll start with the „first particles“. They appeared when the still very unstable medium of the primordial world bubble transitioned from its damn hot but false to the much cooler but correct normal state. As is to be expected, this transition released a huge amount of ENERGY. So it was just suddenly there.
This transition, which in the initial image of superheated water corresponds to the explosive escape of an expanding vapor bubble, led to a very abrupt expansion, which we call the „inflation“ of cosmologists.
I am talking about an unimaginably short time, in about 10¯³⁴ seconds a spatial expansion by a factor of 1026 or more took place. At the end of this process, the system then suddenly fell into the correct normal state, as just mentioned, whereby the energy difference between the incorrect and the correct normal state was now also available in space. It could become effective. It must be said that here and now there is no comparable „moment“ of such brevity and no comparable rate of expansion. This event was an absolutely unique event in the history of our universe, it was a birth: namely the Big Bang. Let’s go into more detail to understand it better.
A small fluctuation in density occurs in the bubbling „primordial medium“. And even quantum mechanics predicts that such a fluctuation can occur again and again with a certain probability. In this case, it is sufficient to create the special bubble as a disturbance, in which the system then drifts from the wrong to the correct normal state. It must be assumed that as long as the energy density within the bubble is only slightly lower than that of the wrong state, it will continue to expand at the dramatic rate described above. Then, quite suddenly, the transition, the crash into the energetically much lower normal state takes place. At this moment, the expansion almost comes to a halt; inflation has come to an end. The statement stands, our universe is born, and from now on the following begins:
It is called the evolution after the Big Bang – before it was the Big Bang cosmology.
The crash into the normal state (crash sounds negative in this case) produced a lot of good things. Because, as I already mentioned, the energy difference to the higher, wrong state was suddenly thrown into space, so to speak. But again, a new question arises: „What happens now with this energy that has become immediately available and is actually < superfluous>? If I go back to the example of the ball on the mountain, we saw there that the potential energy present at the top is transformed into kinetic energy at the bottom; if the ball were made of glass, it would burst into many flying pieces on impact. In the case of the primordial world bubble, the situation is completely different – here and now, the fragments for the entire world to come were created from the energy that was released.
This must first be understood; so let’s get into the CPU and let it work!
First we investigate,
1. what happens when energy is deposited in empty space,
2. what actually is empty space?
We will leave the dark energy mentioned in the previous chapter alone for the time being; it is only responsible for shaping space. But not for its content. I will now briefly refer to the work of the British physicist Paul Dirac. Because we know from his work that empty space is only empty at first glance:
➙ It is a sea of virtual particles, the sea of all particles that have not yet been able to enter reality because they lacked the energy to do so.
➙ Empty space is like a lake, under the surface of which all kinds of particles are just waiting to receive the energy to jump upwards, into reality. What has just been written tends to ask: „What kind of fish are swimming there?“
➙ What actually are particles, and what kinds of particles are there? This brings us to the field of „particle physics“. This states that there are a lot of different „species“ in our world today and that they interact with each other using very different forces. However, I must point out that this diversity only developed in the course of time after the Big Bang, again to be equated with the various living beings that have developed in our world from simpler original forms. It is therefore not at all surprising that physicists would like to assume a particle archetype from which everything then emerged.
It is an honorable wish without a doubt, and although this wish has led to many experiments, it has not yet led to a truly definitive solution; I will say more about this topic in a moment“…..
First of all, however, we can state that there were already two clear, unambiguous basic forms shortly after the Big Bang. These undoubtedly arose from the available energy.
➨ Matter particles and force particles
The former are the basic building blocks of matter from which everything is constructed; the latter mediate the interaction between these building blocks.
A special means by which the basic building blocks are combined to form matter, but they can do more, they are also sent out as messengers when particles of matter collide, as a signal for such an event, so to speak
Let’s take a look at the decomposition of matter. The decomposition into ever smaller components leads to astonishing results. Where is the limit, when do we come across them? They are then the smallest building blocks of matter. The limit only becomes meaningful when a further reduction is no longer possible, hence the question: „When is there an end to divisibility?
Questions must always be answered in science, often it is only an attempt but it became an actual result. That is why I am trying to answer the question I have just posed. Of course, as always, there is a bit of history involved.
I’ll start !
It starts quite negatively because the early attempts failed because we know that chemists‘ atoms consist of nuclei and electrons and physicists‘ nuclei consist of nucleons, protons and neutrons. Now it comes to the point, because the latter in turn consist of quarks.
The latter particles, we now believe, are in turn made up of quarks.
I will now begin with the historical source that leads us to the topic in an absolutely logical way. His name is Lucretius, he was a Roman philosopher and more than two thousand years ago he made a provisional statement and accepted it as true.
He said: „that the truly ultimate constituents of matter can never exist separately, but only as part of a combination. If they existed separately, one could ask what they were made of. Therefore, according to him, such a „particle“ could only ever exist „as a primal component of a larger body from which no force can ever separate it“. That would then be a logical end to divisibility.
And quarks do indeed fulfill this Lucretius requirement: in the language of modern physics, they are subject to „quark confinement – a quark never comes alone“. More in detail.
Quarks are never, absolutely never, found isolated in nature. They are simply always found in atoms, i.e. electrons, protons and neutrons, and are tiny. They were only discovered, or rather slowly detected, when scientists broke atoms.
Quarks are elementary particles and fundamental components of matter. Quarks combine to form composite particles called hadrons. These include protons and neutrons, the components of atomic nuclei.
So far, no evidence for a non-zero size has been found. Experimental findings provide an upper limit of 10¯¹⁹ which corresponds to 10 ˉ ⁴ of the size of a proton. According to current knowledge, quarks are elementary. (fundamental, natural, primordial)
……. Don’t laugh, just smile.
Now into the femto- or atto-detail (small is wonderful)
So nucleons consist of three quarks coupled together, but it must be noted that no force can ever split them and will never be able to split them!
This is mentioned in many reports (experiments).
In addition, a theory for the interaction of quarks is now also mentioned. Simply put, this leads to the description of actual indivisibility. Right after the Big Bang, nobody could worry about the things just mentioned. Empty space, nothingness, did not yet exist! The energy released at that time was so great that „only“ an unimaginably dense quantity of particles and quarks was created.
The turmoil of primordial matter
In primordial matter, quarks were never left alone and so there were always other quarks in the immediate vicinity. This naturally leads to quite amusing ideas.
In a nucleon, a quark is eternally coupled to its two partners, I repeat: (“ no force can ever separate them“), but in the dense turmoil of primordial matter, a quark is completely free: it „walks“ wherever it wants. For nowhere is there a threat of a vacuum, everywhere it goes it always has more than enough of the companions required by quark confinement in its vicinity. This means that it can move freely over any extended area, but is constantly accompanied by new partners. This is exactly what we today call „quark plasma“. Of course, it cannot be ruled out that there are and have been many projects in large-scale experimental research where attempts have been made for several years to generate this plasma in the laboratory. So far, everything has been more negative. But there is another important aspect that concerns the smallest particles.
This raises further questions such as: why does a nucleon consist of three such quarks and not any number of them? Why does the size of a nucleus increase with the number of nucleons it contains? Apparently, we must assume that it is not possible to accommodate any number of particles in a spatial element.
Particles of matter naturally have a „life of their own“ and this is expressed in a special „being“ for them. …….Sorry, a bit philosophical….
Every particle of matter has its own reserved space, however small it may be! …..and whether you want to believe it or not….. each particle of matter always demands its own space, however small it may be. The following sentence is certainly conceivable: The sum of all these spaces with the particles
particles is then the „matter“ we know.
In modern physics, there are such particles that have territorial claims, they do not allow any other identical particle in their space.
I am talking about electrons, nucleons and-as components of nucleons-also quarks. I will now turn to a physicist who has also named and researched the „exclusion principle“ that I mentioned earlier. The physicist’s name is Wolfgang Pauli (1900-1958) and he did this in 1925.
Put more technically :
„No two particles of this kind, identical in every respect, can exist in exactly the same place“. The immediate consequence of this principle should also be mentioned: „It is then also the case that atomic nuclei become larger and larger with increasing weight, i.e. increasing nucleon number.“ I say : With the nucleon number also follows an increasing nucleus size.
A gold nucleus, for example, contains 200 nucleons, a helium nucleus only four. Since each nucleon is said to exist in its own space, the gold nucleus must be correspondingly much larger than the helium nucleus.
So short break…we’ll soon continue with part sex …. I mean 6 of course