Wolfgang Korsus Dipl.-Ing.NT, Astrophysiker
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Considered very trivial………fear of loneliness, these quarks did not need to be. They could enjoy a huge community of other quarks.
In the veritable hustle and bustle of the so-called „primal matter“ every quark is completely free: because their movement is not restricted to them by anything. Also simpler…..
There is no vacuum yet !…..and while it is constantly coupled with its two „partners“ in a nucleon, absolutely no known force will ever be able to separate them.
(the quark confinement takes care of that).
That is, it can therefore move very freely over sufficiently extended areas. But always accompanied by new partners.
This primal matter must also get a name, and it is quite simple:
Since some time one tries in different projects of the experimental large-scale research to generate this plasma in the laboratory. I would like to point out another essential aspect of the smallest particles. Let us consider it.
Why does a nucleon consist of only three such quarks and not of several?
Why does the size of a nucleus increase with the number of nucleons it contains?
Obviously, one must assume that one cannot accommodate an arbitrary number of particles in a space element.
Because in the end, each of the matter particles always demands its own space reserved only for it, however small it may be; and one thing is certain:
……and I say, the sum of all these spaces with the particles in them is nothing else than the „matter“ known to us. I call them „territorial“ particles and they exist in modern physics. Their special property is that they do not tolerate any other identical particle -quasi in their space- in their vicinity:
Electrons, nucleons and – as components of the nucleons – also the quarks.
Now Wolfgang Pauli enters the physical world stage. He has formulated already in 1925 a general „exclusion principle“. It says: At exactly the same place no two in every respect identical particles of this kind can exist!
This principle has a consequence, which is called, atomic nuclei become larger and larger with increasing weight, thus the nucleon number increases.
Again, so that it sticks better. Increasing nucleon number = increasing nucleus size. The example is the gold nucleus, it contains 200 nucleons, a helium nucleus only four.
I conclude from what was said before that nucleons simply exist on their space. What means nothing else than that the gold nucleus is accordingly bigger than a helium nucleus. And to it comes just from physics also the exclusion principle which is based on symmetry arguments. With recourse to the quantum theory I say therefore …..the exchange of two identical particles at the same place, does not lead on the same state, but always on the „mirrored“ one.
The simple exchange of such identical particles is simply indistinguishable. On the other hand, a given state is not identical to its mirrored one, for look at a short test:
The right arm clearly becomes the left one in the mirror! …..and from this it can be concluded that two identical matter particles at the same place are certainly not allowed in quantum theory. Particles with such a symmetry property, of course, have a name. Today they are commonly called fermions.
It was the famous Italian physicist Enrico Fermi who developed the foundations for the physics of these particles.
In my opinion, he was one of the last to make absolutely essential contributions in both theory and experimental physics; for it is certain that he was instrumental in the development of the first nuclear reactor at the beginning of World War II. Enrico Fermi (1901-1954)
So I say matter consists in principle of fermions, but they interact with each other. Einstein says of course also something to it, namely, a direct remote action does not exist.
Now the electrons also get their „interest part off“. If they interact with each other, then one must send a signal to the other. The transmission of this signal takes place of course with a finite speed, namely with speed of light.
Still more simply represented, a messenger, speak light particle or better photon is sent out. This reaches the second after a finite time ….and so a desired information is transmitted. The physicist calls this: Electron interaction by photon exchange.
As already indicated, the second basic form of the particles are therefore the force particles, they mediate the information exchange between the fermions and form also the „glue“ for the structure of the matter. A countable building block of the matter they are not; insofar they also need no own space. Also the number of the force particles in a given volume is not subject to any restriction.
If one carries out an exchange of two such particles in a given state, one receives the same state again.
Particles with this symmetry form are called bosons, after the Bengali physicist Satyendra Nath Bose, and now a very short explanation.
Bosons are the elementary particles that are normally responsible for the transfer of forces. PpppAll bosons have an integer spin. The Pauli principle does not apply to them. This means that many bosons can populate the same quantum mechanical state.
Bosons differ from fermions by the function of their wavefunction. Their wave function is symmetric with respect to permutations. Thus, if you exchange two particles for each other in a collection of many bosons, the wave function does not change. In the case of fermions, however, the exchange changes the sign of the wave function.
Let us come back to Nath Bose, who had determined the essential symmetry of photons in 1927 as a young scientist in Calcutta and had sent his results to Einstein.
It must be mentioned absolutely, because it is typical for Einstein.
He immediately recognizes the ingenious effects of Bose’s investigations, translates „his work“ into the German language and it does not fail, he publishes it in Germany under Bose’s name.
Furthermore the following related force particles are the vector bosons of the weak nuclear force
In addition to photons, the vector bosons of the strong nuclear force are also known today as related force particles. They make the radioactive decay of heavy nuclei, such as uranium, possible……..and how could it be otherwise, in the field of the strong nuclear force, i.e. in the interaction of quarks, the gluons take over this role.
These enable the binding of quarks to protons or neutrons; more on this later.
What follows is, as it should be, a „mini-summary“. So, the basic forms of the particles are fermions and bosons; because the one form the matter, the other mediate and proclaim the interaction between the basic building blocks of the matter.
Now it belongs to a true dream of many scientists to comment this briefly, what I do herewith.
-It is the dream of a single primeval form ! –
So I ask the question!
“ Wouldn’t it be possible that fermions and bosons are the descendants of one single kind of particles?“
The two present forms of which we have just spoken are different, and indeed we could determine by their behavior in the exchange of two equal particles in the same place:
The fermions then go into the mirrored state,
the bosons into the same,
So the particles of the sought so-called all-encompassing theory should allow both. This only rudimentarily investigated theory runs under the name supersymmetry, with the short form SUSY. Further it says itself that it was possible for this theory in the earliest phase of the universe to change fermions into bosons and vice versa.